Archive for the ‘Education’ Category

GOVERNMENT IN EDUCATION

Monday, February 10th, 2014

So-called Common Core. The issue raises the question, What is the legitimate role of the federal government in education? Many would say that the quick and simple answer is . . . none!

Yet, government does have a responsibility to our youths to ensure that they enjoy the optimal opportunity to learn to the best of their respective capabilities the basics necessary to succeed in the business of living. Historically, that governmental responsibility belonged to each state. It included proper instruction in the traditional, educational basics necessary for success in everyday living . . . reading, writing, arithmetic, basic science, and civics. It ended with a pupil’s graduation from high school or reaching the age of twenty, whichever came firstly.

Today, the federal government has intruded into education at every level. Many Americans question the involvement of the federal government at any level. They raise the alert that ultimately the inescapable consequence of such involvement by a humongous, self-serving bureaucracy in the District of Corruption must be to dictate what to think while repressing how to think.

Few Americans, however, question that every American youngster deserves the opportunity to receive basic, apolitical instruction in how to think. Pursuant to the U.S. Constitution, shouldn’t we, then, allow each state and the private sector to offer such opportunity without federal intervention? Even though the outcomes may differ, the benefits, overall, can outweigh the liabilities, especially with appropriate, state-based measurements. The proponents of so-called Common Core, as expected, shout, “No!”

Whatever its benefits, Common Core represents the opposite of that precept. Fundamentally, it represents Big Government. Given current trends, it raises the specter of quasi-Marxist, anti-Western ideologues in D.C. indoctrinating American youth even further into supporting such concepts as the following: equality over liberty, defeat over victory, debt over savings, self-congratulatory failure over competitive success, undeserving dependence over individual responsibility, pathological toleration over healthful discrimination, and trendy sin over historical virtue.

Is there not a better way? Yes (www.inescapableconsequences.com).

A FAILING GRADE (PART TWO)

Monday, July 18th, 2011

[Editorial Note: Educating children and adults, as well, forms the foundation for the future of a nation. The behavior of a certain portion of Americans ostentatiously reflects an increasing ignorance (e.g., little understanding of the U.S. Constitution or the laws of science that govern the world in which we operate), arrogance (i.e., fiercely held, non-scientific ideologies bereft of any possibility of correction), and egocentrism (e.g., the incessant chanting by some elderly, “Don’t touch my Medicare!”).

Given the current charade of political posturing by politicians in Washington over relatively trifling amounts, the darkening context of a declining culture casts an ominous shadow into the American future. Ultimately, education offers the brightest promise for a brighter future; hence, this posting (Parts One and Two) will remain in place during the current, fiscal crisis and its immediate aftermath.]

Continued from Part One . . .

Albie’s mother sighed. She pictured herself a female version of the legendary King of Corinth, Sisyphus, condemned in Hades to roll a boulder up a hill only to have it roll down as it neared the top . . . again and again and again unendingly. Inhaling deeply, she spoke sympathetically while her son looked bored.

“You know, Albie, you’re not always going to be eleven. Given your current educational context and your current educational behavior, the long-term consequences don’t bode well. Remember, in the final analysis, it’s all about context and consequences.”

“Like would you speak English, so I can understand it?” Albie groaned.

“Your inability to understand what I’m saying and your current behavior while we talk exemplify what I mean. Understand?”

“No . . . and I don’t want to!” he yelled at her.

Evelyn rose from her seat and approached her son. She slapped his face. “Understand that?”

When Albie began to rise from his seat, his mother pushed him back into it. “You’ll stay put until I say otherwise. Understand that, too?”

“Yeah,” Albie squeaked.

“You mean, ‘Yes, Ma’am’ . . . don’t you?”

Sullen silence then tears. “Yes, Ma’am.”

Evelyn returned to her seat. “Remember, Son, behavior has its consequences . . . good and bad . . . at home, at school, everywhere (www.inescapableconsequences.com). Okay, let’s try to speak rationally and courteously to one another. I deserve your respect as your mother. You deserve my respect as my son . . . nevertheless, remember the Ten Commandments say, ‘Honor thy father and thy mother’ . . . not ‘Honor thy children.’”

Albie’s lips remained silent, but his thoughts screamed, “Wait till I tell the teacher that she hit me. She’ll get hers. They’ll arrest her, I’ll bet.”

His mother continued, “Currently, you’re being rewarded for less than adequate achievement. You exhibit what behavioral scientists would call ‘a behavioral deficit in education’. By your still making the honor-roll, the school bestows upon you positive reinforcement, despite your obvious deficit. Understand?”

“No.”

“Your school is rewarding you for remaining an ignorant child and becoming an insolent brat. Understand that?”

“Yeah . . . I mean, Yes, Ma’am.”

“As you grow older, your behavioral deficit in education and your behavioral excess in insolence no longer will be rewarded.”

“What do you mean?”

“Albie, our nation is in trouble. It’s as though we’re a nation on fire. If we Americans continue our current trend, good jobs will become increasingly difficult to obtain, and what few will exist will be hard to fill as a consequence of our institutionalized, ossified, educational system . . . too few qualified, American graduates. Let me ask you a question. What would you like to do when you yourself graduate high school?”

“I don’t know . . . like go to college, I guess.”

“What would you study to become?”

“I never thought about it . . . like maybe an actor.”

“What do you think are your chances for success?”

“I don’t know.”

“Statistically, rather small. Any other thoughts?”

“Albie sat silently, thinking. Finally, he said, “I know one thing . . . I want to be rich.”

His mother nodded. “How do you plan to become rich?”

“Well, when you and Avery . . . .”

His mother’s sharp interruption startled him. “I’ve told you not to refer to your father or me by our given names. He’s your father. I’m your mother. As I just said, show some respect . . . it’s one of the Ten Commandments given to us by God.”

“So, my teacher once said that there is no God.”

“How does she know? Wiser people than she, including many scientists, believe that God does exist. Besides, even if He doesn’t, mustn’t we act as though He does? The consequence of not doing so will be anarchy then tyranny. Understand?”

“No.”

“I recognize that I use big words. I do it intentionally to serve as a model for you to imitate. Language is important. Learn it. Value it. Language is the road to knowledge. Knowledge is the road to wisdom.”

Albie returned his mother’s words with a blank stare. She shook her head in frustration.

“Anyways, when Avery . . . I mean, when Dad and you die, I figure like I’ll have all your money since you don’t much like Sis and Bro. Then, I’ll invest it in something and get rich.”

Tears pooled in Evelyn’s eyes. Hastily, she dried them with a handkerchief. “Your father and I aren’t planning to die so soon. Statistically, you’ll probably be middle-aged by the time we do. Besides, given current economic trends, the federal government probably will have taken most of it away through taxes and inflation or outright confiscation.”

“What’s inflation?”

“Increasing the supply of money in an economy without a concomitant increase in production. Say we’re playing the game, Monopoly. Each of us has a certain amount of money. Then, somebody doubles the amount that each of us has without adding more properties to the game. What happens to the prices?”

“They double?”

“Correct. That’s inflation.”

This time, Albie considered his mother’s words. “Well then, like maybe I’ll just bum around . . . go surfing with my friends or somethin’.”

“Do you think that you might marry . . . have a family?”

“I don’t know. Maybe . . . no, probably I’ll just hook up with some chick. If she has a good job, like she’ll support the both of us till you and . . . till you and Dad die.”

Evelyn barely could control her emotions. She felt torn between slapping her son again and hugging the boy whom she viewed as being led astray through no fault of his own. “God only knows what will happen when his hormones start raging,” she thought. Suddenly a surge of anger shot through her. “My little boy was born innocent. What are we Americans allowing those misguided, self-serving, ideologues to do to him?”

Anger is a powerful emotion. Channeled properly, it can power great good; channeled improperly, it can power great harm. Evelyn recognized that power, but she could not identify which channel hers would take. She believed that another failure in parenting might drive her mad. “Mad enough to do what?” she wondered for the first time in her heretofore, highly self-regulated life.

Becoming lost in her own thoughts, she closed her eyes. The minutes passed. Albie sat quietly, wondering what his mother was thinking.

Suddenly, her eyes opened. “Who really is to blame?” she asked herself. “The politicians? The bureaucrats? The local school-board? The principal? The teachers?” It seemed to her that they all were at fault. “What we Americans are allowing is ideological pirates to plunder our heritage. They’re subverting our most precious, personal, American Ideals . . . self-reliance; personal responsibility; respect for property and person and, most of all, knowledge.”

She was beginning to believe that a conspiracy did exist. The elitists in Big Government, Big Business, and Big Media against the rest of the people. No, it was not an explicit conspiracy of secret organizations. It was an implicit conspiracy of like-minded, influential elitists who regarded the Constitution with contempt as an archaic relic deserving only of re-interpretation pursuant to the accepted views of the moment. She asked herself, “Am I crazy, or am I right?”

Growing impatient, Albie intruded on her thoughts. “Can I go now?” After a disapproving glance from his mother, he corrected his grammar, “May I go now?”

Feeling a weary frustration beyond that which her words could describe, she merely nodded in the affirmative. Albie sprang to his feet. He ran to the front door, opened it, then slammed it behind his departing footsteps as he ran headlong into what Aldous Huxley(8) might call our “brave, new world”.

Reference
8. Huxley, A: Brave New World. New York: Harper & Row Publishers (1932, 1946).

A FAILING GRADE (PART ONE)

Monday, July 11th, 2011

“Albie, come here, please.”

Shuffling towards the matching chair across from his mother’s, the blonde, eleven-year-old’s blue eyes darted around the living room before settling onto the coffee table that would divide parent from child. He stood slouched, sullen, motionless.

“Sit down, Honey. We need to talk.”

“We need to talk!” the boy repeated silently . . . that statement universally a warning. Something bad is afoot. Cautiously, he replied, “Yeah?”

“I received your report-card today.”

“So? Like I made the honor-roll again, didn’t I?”

“Yes.”

“So? Like what’s the ‘beef’?”

“The ‘beef’, as you say, relates to my inability to understand what this so-called honor-roll signifies.”

“So, why ask me? Ask Brown. Like he’s the principal.”

“It’s Mr. Brown to you, and I did ask. All I received was a bunch of gobbledegook about self-esteem and each pupil’s finding his own way.”

Albie smirked. “Don’t you mean ‘his or her’ own way? Like everybody’s not a boy, you know.”

“The dual meaning is implied by the masculine alone. Using only the masculine is a more parsimonious and efficient manner of communication.”

“I don’t know what you’re talking about.”

“Never mind for now. The issue I’m addressing is this so-called honor-roll. What percentage of your classmates achieved such a questionable distinction?”

“Like who cares?”

“I care. Mr. Brown told me that it’s ‘substantial’. He refused to give me an exact number, however.”

“So?”

“It has no real value.”

“So, I know that. It’s not supposed to.”

“What’s its purpose?”

“To make us feel good about ourselves.”

“Does it?”

“Not really. I think its like kinda dumb.”

“I do, too. Feeling good is one thing. Doing well is quite another. Feeling good about doing well has real value. In life as in Heaven, we’re judged based upon our behavior and its consequences .  . . not upon how good we feel about ourselves (www.inescapableconsequences.com). As we age, we’re valued increasingly for our behavior and its consequences and decreasingly for ourselves. ‘Toes once kissed and counted now go unwanted.’”

His mother’s words drew a blank stare followed by a question. “Can I go now?”

“You can. You may not.”

Albie’s eyes rolled upwards. He let an audible sigh. “You oughta be teaching English again.”

“I’m satisfied with the traditional role of wife and mother. Besides, no school would hire me . . . well, maybe a few might. I’m too demanding that my pupils learn their native language adequately and use it properly. I grade based upon performance not psychobabble.”

“So, it’s not my fault nobody will hire you. Like I can’t change the system.”

“I know, Sweetheart. Because neither you nor I can change the governmental school . . . .”

Albie’s eyes rolled upwards again. “You mean ‘public’ school?”

“Yes. Anyways, because we can’t change the system, your father and I are considering transferring you to a private school next academic year.”

“What kind of private school?”

“An Orthodox Jewish one.”

Albie turned pale. His voice failed then exploded, “I won’t go!”

His mother nodded sympathetically. “I think I understand how you feel. Let me explain the reasons to go. Then, you decide. Okay?”

“Go ahead.”

His mother paused, looking at her son, asking herself three, basic questions from Psychology 101, “Who is this boy? What is he? Where is he?”

Who was Albie? A pre-adolescent boy. The last of three children born to Avery and Evelyn Eden, representing what sometimes is called an “afterthought”. His sister was ten years his senior; his brother, twelve.

Albie’s sister had become a lesbian. She was residing with her “partner”, a “trans-sexual”, and their five dogs. The two women operated a daycare-center for toddlers. Most of the parents were “single moms”. The women themselves were trying to adopt a baby from Haiti. Albie’s mother had rejected his sister’s lifestyle and his sister herself. Albie’s father was more accepting.

“It’s the times, Honey,” Avery had told his wife. “America is a declining culture, so is Western Europe. The decline is reflected in our cultural lifestyles. Accept them. We can’t change them.”

Albie’s brother had attended a nearby, “public” college then enrolled in a local “diploma-mill” training aspiring lawyers to pass the bar-exam. Afterwards, he joined a law-firm notorious for its aggressive tactics in the area of personal injuries. Every time that Evelyn saw his angry face on a billboard, she would remember that the law dating from 1908 prohibited advertising by lawyers . . . that is, until the U.S. Supreme Court had declared the law unconstitutional.(1) Lawyers’ instructing Americans to sue other Americans. The consequences? Fattening lawyers’ purses . . . setting Americans against one another. Then, she would cry, “My son is a promoter of that horrid system,” vowing, “Things will go better with Albie.”

What was Albie? A disaffected pupil attending governmental schools, he was becoming what his mother viewed as a pawn of a misguided government . . . a government, she believed, that issued educational mandates to transform children into unthinking, ignorant, human robots serving the system under the guise of hollow self-esteem and tolerance of the intolerable. She had convinced herself that Marxist-oriented renegades from the 1960’s had usurped control of the educational system from top to bottom, instilling their idiosyncratic brand of ideology into young minds, undermining America for generations to come.

Where was Albie? Biologically, pre-pubescent. Geographically, living at home with his two parents. Behaviorally, under the control more of his school, his peers, and his electronic devices and less of his parents.

At the moment, sitting across from her son, Evelyn Eden tried to speak gently but persuasively; a difficult balance. “Sweetheart, I love you. I want the best for you, so let me give you some facts about the American, educational system. You’re old enough to understand what I’m about to say.”

Albie looked unimpressed but remained silent. His mother continued.

“This nation spends more than five hundred billion dollars per year to educate young people such as you. That’s a million multiplied five hundred thousand times! No other country spends close to that amount. Per-pupil spending has more than doubled since 1970 . . . pupil-teacher-ratios have declined from 22:1 to 15:1. Yet, American youth such as you . . . especially as they mature . . . fare poorly against the youth of many other countries. In addition only 70% of pupils here graduate high school. After two-trillion dollars in federal funds, we have nothing to show for the expenditure.”(2)

“So, like what’s the good news?”

“The good news, Albie, is that 72% of fourth graders, 63% of eighth graders, and 60% of twelfth graders have a rudimentary grasp of science . . . unfortunately, not including behavioral science.”(3)

“So, that’s not so bad.”

“The bad news is that when the knowledge needs to be applied consistently, American pupils don’t fare so well. By the twelfth grade, only 20% can do it. Overall, in science and mathematics, American pupils rank 48th among 133 nations. Worse, on Advanced Placement exams, the percentage receiving the lowest grade is rising. It’s now 23% . . . ten years ago, it was 14%.”(4)

“So, like maybe we should be paying teachers better?”

“We already pay them rather well. The average teacher in so-called public school receives 36% per year more than the average, non-sales, ‘white collar’ worker . . . and 11% more than the average technical worker. Chemists earn 5% less than these teachers, and mechanical engineers 6% less. Teachers in public schools receive 61% more money than teachers in private schools and work 36 hours per week compared to 38. The City of Detroit offers the highest salaries in the nation . . . yet, its rate of dropouts is 75%.”

“Seventy-five percent?”

“Yes. The unionized system makes terminating incompetent teachers almost impossible. I read that the State of New Jersey, over a period of ten years, terminated fewer than 50 among 100,000 teachers. Do you still think that pay is the problem?”

“I guess not.”

“Another thing, Albie . . . proficiency in the governmental, educational system has lost all meaning . . . as is the case with your so-called honor-roll. Tests become progressively easier for pupils to pass. Standards become progressively lower.(5) Worse, pupils who are unruly or retarded are kept in classes with other, more well-behaved, and normal children.”

“Yeah, we’ve got some of them in our class. The teacher gives them most of her attention.”

“Even the parents of these unfortunate children recognize the foolhardy nature of these federally-mandated programs.(6) Does failure stop the politicians? No. “Head Start” is but one example.”(7)

“So, what does all that have to do with me?”

“A lot . . . a whole lot. I’ll be candid with you, Albie. Your sister and brother have been bitter disappointments to me . . . admittedly, not as much to your father. We blame ourselves. As do many parents, we shifted the rearing of our children to the governmental educational system while we both worked to afford more material goods. We were wrong. I should’ve been here at home with them as I am with you. Studies show that children reared in families with two parents when the parents attend to their children’s moral and intellectual upbringing do best. Understand?”

“Yeah.”

“That’s why I’m here with you now. I’m trying my hardest to battle the pernicious influences of some of your teachers, most of your peers, television, video-games, and the Internet. Judging from your current attitude, I’m afraid I’m losing the battle.”

Albie looked at the floor and shrugged. “So, like maybe you are.”

References
1. Bates and O’Steen v. State Bar of Arizona, 433 U.S. 350, 1977.
2. Coburn, TA: “Investing $2 Trillion in Education with No Result.” The Washington Times (National Edition), 25 October 2010, page 33.
3. Simmons, D: “U.S. Education Still Found Lax In Science, Math.” The Washington Times (National Edition), 31 January 2011, page 18.
4. Banchero, S: “More Students Fail Advanced Placement Tests.” The Wall Street Journal, 10 February 2011, page A3.
5. Finn, CE, Jr: “Dumbing Education Down.” The Wall Street Journal, 05 October 2007, page A16.
6.Tomsho, R: “Parents of Disabled Students Push for Separate Classes”.  The Wall Street Journal, 27 November 2007, page A1.
7. Charen, M: “Impervious to Evidence.” The Washington Times (National Edition), 14 March 2011, page 36.

EDUCATION AND THE BUSINESS OF LIVING

Monday, November 8th, 2010

Foreword
It cannot be said too often that our youths are our future. Ominously, the past two generations have witnessed the introduction of mindless television; hyper-stimulating video-games; and inane, electronic messaging. As our behavior increasingly comes under the control of these electronic devices, the trend raises the question how best to offset their pernicious effects. Education naturally comes to mind.

Yet, the past two generations also have witnessed a widespread, deepening deficit in promoting educational achievement among American youths. An inescapable consequence has been a failure in teaching our youths how to think (www.inescapableconsequences.com). Some may link this potentially fatal failure with the emphasis upon teaching them what to think

A nation the populace of which is unable to think but only react is a nation ripe for political, economic, and social tyranny. Ironically, given the progress in behavioral science from the modern biobehavioral orientation, teaching our youths how to think is not all that difficult. Moreover, one can view it as an essential element in a comprehensive education in the business of living.

A Very Short Story
The other day, I was having a telephonic conversation with a friend. Informal conversations tend to roll from subject to subject, and this one was no different. As the various topics rolled into and out of focus, we touched upon goals in living. My colleague, an expert in behavioral science, long ago had abandoned the field to become an independent investor. After having published a number of documented successes in education, he found the consequences of his endeavors to be either 1) extinction through inattention or 2) punishment through hostile criticism. The controlling variable amongst bureaucrats in the educational establishment belied the stated mission of educating youths and proved itself to be the unstated mission of promoting the educational bureaucracy. His work had shown a better way of doing things. The bureaucrats hated it. Battered, bruised, and bloodied, he finally targeted a new goal and changed his behavior. His new goal was to have made ten million dollars. How well had he been progressing toward fulfilling that goal? He never said.

“What about your goals?” he asked.

“Mine?” I paused then made what I considered a rather bold statement. “My primary goal,” I said, “is to have done my own small part in furthering the education of the American public with regard to employing behavioral science from the biobehavioral orientation to affairs both societal and personal.” I knew that I was talking to the wrong person. Even so, I couldn’t stop myself.

“Well, that’s an idealistic . . . if not megalomanic . . . mouthful.”

 “I know. I’m choking on it. What do you think are my chances for success?”

Without hesitation he replied, “Almost none.”

“Really? Here, I was thinking my chances actually were none . . . none, at all. What a relief! It’s truly gratifying to talk with an optimist such as you.”

A Call to Cognition
My friend’s pessimism was well founded. In contrast to the other sciences, behavioral science has made few inroads into the everyday business of living. As he had demonstrated to his regret, even when proven more successful than non-scientific approaches, behavioral science has been and largely remains ignored; if not resisted actively, including in the medical marketplace.(1)

Ironically, its basic principles are easier to understand and to apply than those of any other science. In addition, its benefits can be obvious and immediate. In fact, the basic concepts are as simple as 1) a single law, 2) the ABC’s, and 3) the difference between topography and function. That’s it! Understanding three, simple concepts allows you to change society and yourself.

The single law is the basic law of instrumental or operant behavior . . . what you do; not what you think or feel. That law is the Law of Effect.(2) . . . B = f(x) under c. In a given context, behavior is a function of its consequences. If you want more of a behavior, reward it. If you want less, don’t reward it. Yes, you can punish it, but punishment carries with it a host of undesirable side-effects.

The ABC’s refer to Antecedent, Behavior, and Consequence. Antecedent is the event that occasions a behavior to occur. Behavior is the activity upon the environment. Consequence is the event following the behavior that determines its future strength.

Behavioral scientists describe behavior according to topography and function. Topography is how a behavior looks to the eye of an observer. Function is the consequence that controls the strength of the behavior and, thereby, related to the Law of Effect.

Behaviors that look identical may differ in function. Two men walk into a bank then walk out. Topographically, their behaviors are identical. The first, however, is applying for a job. The second is withdrawing money at the point of a gun. Functionally, their walking-behaviors differ markedly.

Conversely, behaviors that look different may be functionally identical. A vagabond is sitting by the side of a deserted highway. His goal is to have arrived in Los Angeles. An executive is flying in a private jet-aircraft. His goal also is to have arrived in Los Angeles. Topographically, their behaviors are dissimilar. Functionally, they are identical.

Pre-pubescent sixth graders can understand these three, simple concepts. Teaching them provides youths with an education in living . . . an education in describing what they do and why they do it, if you will.

Once the leading nation in completion of college, America today ranks twelfth.(3) The reasons are multi-dimensional; nevertheless, one issue should be clear to every educator. A deficit in understanding the basic principles governing their own, personal behaviors handicaps children throughout the remainder of their lives. Shouldn’t it be the responsibility of each school-district to ensure that each pupil receives the opportunity to learn those concepts? Contrary to a recent proposal by the Commander-in-Chief of Big Government, our children don’t need another commission with offices in the District of Corruption to study the problem of failing education in America. They do need proper instruction in the traditional, educational basics necessary for success in everyday living. . . reading, writing, arithmetic, etc. . . .  and in the non-traditional basics of the principles governing that everyday living.

Is it not our duty as adults . . . yours and mine . . . to ensure that it happens? If so, let’s do it, beginning now. Let’s prove that my friend was . . . hmm, shall we say ahead of his time?

References
1. Moss, GR: “A Commentary on the Status of the Behavioral Approach in the Healthcare Marketplace.” Journal of Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry 24: 311 (1993).
2.Thorndike, EL: Animal Intelligence: Experimental Studies.  New York: Macmillan (1911).
3. Banchero, S: “Graduation Rates Stagnate As Latinos Continue To Trail.” The Wall Street Journal, 20 October 2010, page A4.